Noticias 18 Agosto 2014

Problemas del camarón en China

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China.- La región de Zhanjiang en la provincia de Guangdong, ha anunciado que la cantidad y el valor de reproductores de camarón importado en los primeros 10 meses de este año crecieron un 13,8% a 273.000 piezas, aumentando su valor en un 21,7% a USD 13,3 millones (12,4 millones de euros).

El aumento de las importaciones de reproductores es parte de un esfuerzo por mejorar la calidad y la sostenibilidad de la producción de camarón de China, según el buró regional de pesca, que ha señalado a los problemas con los virus y la endogamia que desea abordar en los criaderos de camarón del país.

Sin embargo, estos son problemas que han persistido durante la última década en China, y que parece que van a seguir siendo. A pesar de numerosos planes y subsidios del gobierno, el país simplemente no ha sido capaz de hacer frente eficazmente a cuestiones como el uso excesivo de productos químicos, la mala crianza y alimentación de mala calidad, por lo tanto, un suministro de camarón de calidad desigual.

"Normalización" es una de las palabras más utilizadas en los largos documentos publicados por las autoridades pesqueras de China en los últimos años; esto es una referencia a la necesidad de coherencia y los estándares más altos en el sector de la acuicultura en el país.

Con ese fin, las granjas de demostración se han creado y los funcionarios enviados a comprobar en las instalaciones donde se producen mariscos. Pero la cantidad de calidad sigue siendo el santo y seña del sector pesquero de China, con objetivos oficiales establecidos para aumentar constantemente la cantidad de marisco producido. Esto es en gran parte a la naturaleza masivamente fragmentada del sector, y la falta de normas de concesión de licencias y de formación eficaces, que sirvan como barreras de entrada a la acuicultura de camarón de pequeña escala y los productores especulador poco calificados.

Mientras tanto, hay un cambio constante, pero fundamental en marcha que finalmente ver a China viento abajo sus exportaciones de camarón a favor de las ventas nacionales y las importaciones. Las perspectivas a largo plazo para la demanda interna es muy prometedor, y es probable que apretar gradualmente la cantidad de camarones disponible para exportación. Las exportaciones de China han seguido una trayectoria descendente en los últimos años, la caída en casi un 14 por ciento el año pasado a aproximadamente 60.000 toneladas métricas (TM), mientras que las importaciones de camarón aumentaron 10 por ciento a 78 mil TM.

El camarón se ha convertido en un bien de consumo diario en China, donde el promedio de ingresos nominales urbanas crecieron un 12 por ciento anual durante la última década, de forma masiva antes del 1 por ciento en Estados Unidos y 0,3 por ciento en el Reino Unido durante el mismo período, según datos de la Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas de China y el Banco Mundial. Consideramos que el crecimiento del ingreso en China ha creado riqueza que está aquí para quedarse - ahorro de los hogares aumentó en más del 300 por ciento en los últimos 10 años a USD 8.5 trillones (8 billones de euros), superior a los PIB combinados de Rusia, Brasil, India e Italia , según el Banco Mundial.

Pero el cambio gradual de las exportaciones al mercado interno también, sin embargo, aliviar un poco la presión para mejorar los estándares, que ha sido impulsada en particular por la Food and Drug Administration de los Estados Unidos, entre otros, mediante el seguimiento constante y el bloqueo de los exportadores de camarones chinos conocidos tener cantidades excesivas de antibióticos y otros productos químicos.

El fracaso de la industria del camarón chino y funcionarios para mejorar satisfactoriamente los estándares de calidad dentro de la industria significa que en el largo plazo no habrá demanda de importaciones de camarones de calidad, si los problemas que crían sus cabezas en el comercio de exportación, finalmente, también se convierten en problemas en el hogar mercado. Ya procesadores se quejan de la escasez de suministro constante, la calidad de los camarones en China y algunos han intentado aumentar su propia producción estanque, no es una tarea fácil, dada la escasez de tierra, el crédito y la mano de obra asequible en el sur de China en estos días. Un exceso de alimentación de baja calidad ha significado precios bajos en los últimos seis meses. Precios en la explotación del camarón en China sólo han comenzado a mejorar el mes pasado con el endurecimiento de temporada de la oferta de los estanques. El "China índice de precios del camarón" mantenida por el Ministerio de Agricultura se elevó 1,71 hasta 109,45 para la semana que terminó el 13 de noviembre.

Problema de calidad de China tendrá un impacto en los precios, la oferta regional de camarón y la fijación de precios en el largo plazo. Si bien la oferta de camarones de Vietnam de China se ha visto amenazada por la entrada de esta última en la Alianza del Pacífico Trans (TPP) tratado de libre comercio, China ha estado promoviendo alternativas acuerdos de libre comercio como la Asociación regional integral Económico (RCEP), un proyecto de 16 naciones zona de libre comercio que sería grande como bloque en el mundo, que abarca 3.4 millones de personas y que incluye China, así como India, otro importante productor de camarón. Con las exportaciones cayendo y el consumo interno creciente de China necesitarán fuentes de abastecimiento de camarón de calidad.

Fuente:
http://www.cna-ecuador.com/prensa/1809-19-11-2015-camaron-de-cultivo-en-china-tiene-problemas-con-la-calidad

 

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